How to use peat fertilizer correctly, and what is it for

The rotten remains of flora and fauna have long been used in agriculture. Gardeners use peat as a fertilizer, knowingly knowing about the values ​​and characteristics of this mineral.

How is peat formed?

In swampy places, a lot of vegetation and living organisms die, after death they form a compressed biomass. The further process takes place in conditions of high humidity and lack of air.

peat is formed

Peat extraction technology

Lying on the surface, it is easily mined. This is done in two ways:

  • milling;
  • lump or excavator method.

peat extraction


This method assumes layer-by-layer extraction of peat in short cycles. That is, using milling drums, the top layer is milled with a depth of 6–20 mm. As a result, peat crumbs are formed, the particle size of which is 15-25 mm. After milling, the layer is constantly turned over in order to dry.

When it dries up, they begin to roll it, stack it. Then everything is repeated, the number of repetitions reaches 10-50 times.

They have been using this mining method since 1930. The advantages of this method are that it is completely mechanized, that is, the cost of the material obtained is low. Milled peat is used in production, power plants. And in agriculture 15-25% of the extracted minerals. The milling method is intensive drying and requires good weather conditions. In addition, it is more in demand, since the cost of human resources is minimal, and production is in large quantities.

layer-by-layer production


Extracted with excavators. Development is carried out to a depth of 400-800 cm. First, peat is mined with a ladle technique, then bricks are formed from it. They are laid out in the fields to dry. Then they are stacked and taken out. Based on the location of production and other development costs, the value of the mineral is determined.The weight of one piece varies from 500 to 1000 g. This method of extraction is no more than 90 years old.

piece varies

Transitional peat

It is mined in all possible ways, it all depends on where it lies and which method is more profitable. Most often, this particular species is used for agriculture in order to increase soil fertility.

possible ways

Peat as fertilizer: pros and cons

When purchasing peat, young and inexperienced summer residents add it in unlimited quantities to the beds with plantings. Whether this is correct, and whether it is harmful for cultivated plants, only a few ponder. Peat consists of 40-60% humus, but in its pure form it is very harmful for the garden. Plus, many gardeners consider a large percentage of nitrogen content, about 25 kg per 1 ton.

But few people know that this nitrogen is not absorbed by plants, as it is poorly absorbed.

It is better not to fertilize the garden with pure peat, it is necessary to mix it with others organic fertilizers... The advantage of adding peat to the soil is that it increases the air permeability of the soil, makes it more airy and loose. It is easier for plants to grow in such land, but this is not enough for the full development of the root system, green mass and fruits.

inexperienced summer residents

It is recommended to use transitional or lowland peat. In no case is it a horse, it greatly increases the acidity of the soil composition.

High peat is suitable for those plants that thrive in acidic soil. In this case, it is added during transplantation and later they mulch the soil around the plants.

low-lying peat


You can understand the value of this mineral in comparison with organic fertilizers:

organic fertilizers

Humus and manure

The main difference is acidity. Peat wins here, so it is used for depleted land. But in most cases, humus is used, since it contains more nutrients necessary for plant growth.

depleted land


Chernozem contains a large amount of humus, but there are also more pathogenic bacteria and viruses in it. Therefore, the summer resident has to choose on his own based on what the soil lacks. If peat is introduced, it must be diluted with sand and perlite and humus.

pathogenic bacteria

Chicken droppings

Chicken droppings benefit from being more valuable in terms of the composition of nutrients. Some summer residents prefer to use droppings.


What is peat for?

The novice gardener asks about the role of peat fertilizer for the site. The advantage of its use is that it contains a large amount of humic and amino acids, they contribute to the rapid growth of plants.

Peat is used for the preparation of fertile soil, for planting seedlings, indoor plants.

The main purpose of using peat in agriculture is to increase soil fertility.

fertilizer for the site

The advantages of using a mineral on the site:

  • improving soil structure;
  • increased productivity;
  • increased moisture permeability;
  • improved breathability.

How useful fertilizer is for a personal plot, the summer resident will appreciate after its application. But you should carefully study the composition of the soil, and then apply top dressing.

fossil on site

Peat properties

There are many properties due to which it is widely used in agriculture, medicine, cosmetology and many other industries. The summer resident is interested in the answer to the question of what properties peat has that are useful for a personal plot or summer cottage:

  1. In combination with other organic substances, it is able to nourish and enrich the soil.
  2. Makes the soil moisture and breathable.
  3. Increases soil acidity.
  4. Eliminates pathogenic microflora from soil.
  5. Able to reduce nitrate levels.
  6. Weakens the effects of pesticides.


Peat properties differ depending on what type it belongs to. There is no need to add a mineral to fertile soils. In this case, its properties are neutral.

Peat composition

The composition includes plant residues that have not completely decomposed. Their decay products and mineral particles. Under natural conditions, it contains 86-95% water. Botanical composition:

plant residues

  • wood residues;
  • bark and roots of trees;
  • various plant residues;
  • hypnum and sphagnum moss.

The chemical composition varies depending on the type, botanical composition and degree of degradation. That is, the percentage of micro- and macroelements in its composition depends on what type of peat is studied, and whose plant residues in its basis depend.

botanical composition

Acidity of peat

It directly depends on how much calcium is in its composition. Due to the high degree of acidity, the horse is practically not used for planting; it is suitable for mulching. Since its pH is 3-5. Summer residents prefer to use low-lying peat, since its acidity is 5-8. All particles in its composition are well decomposed and are suitable for feeding any crop.

According to the degree of acidity, the following classification is determined:

  1. Strongly acidic, their ash content is 1.5-3%, lime content 0.15-0.6%, pH 2.5-4.
  2. Medium acid, ash content 3–6%, presence of 1% in lime, pH 3.5–4.5.
  3. Slightly acidic, ash content 5-12%, lime more than 1%, pH 4.5-5.5.
  4. Neutral, high ash content, neutral pH above 7%.

degree of decomposition

It is worth remembering that when it comes to composition, it will not work to say unequivocally about all types. Therefore, general characteristics are given.

Decomposition rate

The presence of humus in it depends on how much the peat has decomposed. That is, the greater the degree of decomposition, the higher the percentage of structureless particles. This characteristic is basic when describing the qualities and useful properties.

This indicator is determined as a percentage, "by eye" or under a microscope. In the first case, only fresh peat is taken, which has its own natural moisture. Signs by which the degree of decomposition is determined:

the presence of humus in it

  • plastic;
  • the number and safety of plant fragments;
  • the amount and color of the pressed water.

The decomposition is divided into 3 groups:

  • 30% - highly decomposed. It is squeezed through the fingers, separate, large fragments of plant residues remain in the hands. After squeezing out, water, which is either very little or not at all, remains plastic. The water is dark brown.
  • 20% - medium decomposed. It is difficult to push through the fingers, a lot of plant remains remain in the hands. Water that is squeezed out is light brown or brown in color. The squeezed peat has a weak spring.
  • Less than 20% - slightly decomposed. Impossible to push through your fingers. Plant residues are easily distinguishable. Water is easily squeezed out, its color is yellowish or colorless. The pressed peat is springy and rough on the surface.

through fingers

More detailed information is provided by the macroscopic method; Varlygin.

In the field, when it is not possible to conduct laboratory tests, the smear method is used. The disadvantage of the method for determining the degree of decomposition is the hardly distinguishable traces of poorly decomposed soil. And the plus is the quick determination of the results.

lab tests

Peat types

According to the Institute's research on the European part of the Soviet Union, there are 38 species. But all these species are combined into 3 types, which are subdivided based on the properties of peat and the nature of the waters that feed the swamps.

  1. Lowland.
  2. Horse.
  3. Transition.

subdivided based on

Low peat

It is fed by groundwater. Its pH is neutral or slightly acidic. In total, it contains 70% of organic residues, in addition, it contains a large amount of minerals.

Low-lying peat is often used to improve the soil composition of a soil that has been used for a long time without any fertilization.

neutral or slightly acidic

Horse peat

Of all types, it is the most infertile, therefore it is suitable only for mulching or for plants that require high acidity of the soil for growth and development.

It contains sphagnum moss, pine, cotton grass and a certain amount of moisture. And also parasites and weed seeds are completely absent. These qualities are especially valuable for those summer residents who have greenhouses.

amount of moisture

Transitional peat

Secondary formation between lowland and high-moor peat, that is, the interlayer is transitional. With less trace elements, and low soil acidity. The plant residues that make up this species are almost constant, differ slightly, depending on the type of peat deposits.

high peat

Neutralized peat

A riding subspecies. It is used for the preparation of substrates; for this, raw materials of a low degree of decomposition are taken. In this case, limestone flour is used to neutralize acidity.

With its use, greenhouse soil, or soil for plants grown in pots, is made. For open ground, used for planting trees and shrubs.

degree of decomposition

Peat use

The fields of its application in agriculture are very wide. Use the mineral in the beds, indoors, in the garden and when growing flowers.

For the vegetable garden

Pure peat is not used to fertilize the beds. Basically it is mixed with humus and other organic substances. And make it wet 50-60%. Otherwise, it will already be mulching.

Peat compost is common in summer cottages. In addition, summer residents call this method of application the most effective.

fossil in the garden

For greenhouse

The ability of a mineral to absorb moisture and at the same time retain it is indispensable when arranging a greenhouse. With the help of these properties, it maintains the optimal temperature regime of the soil in the greenhouse for a long time. Concurrently, the mineral is an antiseptic. Therefore, in greenhouses, peat is filled to 50-90%.

is an antiseptic

For garden

For use in the garden, preliminary preparation of the mineral is required. It is recommended to stand it thoroughly for 2 weeks. If possible, sift through a sieve.

When using peat in the garden, constant watering is required. Proper use will provide plant roots with nutrients and oxygen necessary for active plant growth.


For plants

Peat is used for many types of crops. Used as a fertilizer in spring or autumn for digging. This helps to improve the composition of the soil and increase the nutrients that the plant takes for proper development and growth.

digging in autumn

For flowers

Fans of growing flowers, garden and indoor, also note the positive effect of peat on plants. Using the mineral as fertilizer helps plants recover faster after transplanting.

Peonies react especially well. They grow faster, bloom better and have a very strong odor. They use it as mulch and top dressing. In the second case, it is necessary to combine it with mineral fertilizers.

strong smell

Winter application

In winter, the mineral is used for compost. During the winter, it overheats and turns into the most nutritious fertilizer. Its application in winter causes early snow melting. Consequently, the soil starts to warm up earlier.

nutrient fertilizer

Fertilization of individual crops

The mineral is used for some crops in different ways, it is important to know how to fertilize correctly so as not to harm either the plant or the soil.


Growing potatoes is a laborious process. A summer resident, in order to get a crop, makes fertile soil in the garden, adding sand and clay. But by themselves, these components do not perform the necessary function, therefore peat is added to them. This soil composition is the most suitable for the crop.

selected crops


Applying fertilizer on strawberry beds, gardeners note the early ripening of the berries, the harvest becomes richer, the taste of strawberries is richer. Brought in in spring or autumn, mixing with sawdust and drying well. Add it to the aisle of 30 kg per 1 m2... Or directly into each hole.

early ripeness of berries


For this culture, peat is used as foliar and root top dressing once every 2 weeks. Or contribute 1 m2 4 kg, spreading evenly over the bed.

For the best effect, the mineral is added when planting seeds.

root feeding


Thanks to the introduction of peat into the soil, a rich crop harvest is obtained. It is important to observe the dosage and properly lime or reduce the acidity of the soil. Observance of proportions will help to get the maximum possible yield from cucumber bushes.

crop crop


For this culture, which is very picky about acidity, peat is used by lowering the pH. Then the effect of its application will be noticeable almost immediately.

picky about acidity

Fertilizing the soil with peat

To increase soil fertility, summer residents use this mineral. But many do not even think that it does harm. Therefore, before fertilizing the soil, it is required to determine what exactly the soil needs.

By bringing it into fertile land, you should not expect improvements, since there will be no result. But if the soil is severely depleted, then it raises its fertility.

Summer residents recommend introducing the mineral together with other organic additives, since in its pure form it is poor in minerals.

Fertilizing the soil

Peat preparation

Before use, it is necessary to properly prepare the mineral. To do this, you need to fulfill simple requirements:

  1. Air well before use. To evaporate the toxic substances in its composition.
  2. The moisture content of the raw materials used is not less than 50%.
  3. The impact on the plant is not instantaneous, sometimes they are noticeable, only after 2-3 years.
  4. Regardless of the season, fertilization is always appropriate.
  5. The best use is compost.

mineral resource

When to deposit

There are no specific terms, it is brought in at any time, in spring and autumn for plowing. During the period of plant growth, aisles and under the roots.

in autumn for plowing


There are no rules for the use of a mineral. They note only the moment that it is necessary to make it for several years in a row, gradually bringing the soil to the desired degree of fertility.


Peat mulching

This process also requires compliance with the rules, this leads to a positive result from the work done. Mulch during the growing season or before winter. In the summer, peat is used for this, which is applied in a layer from 1 to 2 cm. In the spring, protecting the plantings, up to 5 cm, in winter the layer is not limited.

peat mulching

Top dressing of soil

Peat mixed with any organic additives is used to enrich the fertile layer of the earth. Since he alone does not provide the proper enrichment with minerals. Mineral, in its pure form, is used only for mulching.

They use high moor peat for mulch, lowland and transitional, for soil enrichment.

mixed with any

Organization of peat compost

Pure fertilization provides little nutrients to the soil. Therefore, summer residents recommend composting. It requires foliage, food waste, cut weeds and other plant debris to prepare it. The compost is prepared within 1-1.5 years. The degree of readiness is determined visually. The whole mass should be homogeneous and loose.

peat compost

The ways

There are 2 ways to organize compost, which of them is preferable to the summer resident himself.

Focal composting

A layer of peat of 50-60 cm is spread on the chosen place. Then, in a continuous layer, or in heaps, manure is spread 70-80 cm. Moreover, the width is made, less peat by 1-1.5 m, then covered with a layer of peat, 50-60 cm on top. from all sides. This method is preferable in winter.

the summer resident chooses


The peat is spread over a width of 4-5 m, the length of the site is possible, the layer thickness is 50 cm, then a layer of manure is laid, then peat again, and so several times, the height of the finished compost heap is 2 m. The last layer is necessarily peat.

Peat based fertilizer

Fertilizer manufacturers create plant nutrition. They make it for those who cannot make a compost heap on their own. Made in the form of granules, which are added directly to the wells. And a liquid fertilizer that is much better absorbed. It is watered with plants and used as a growth stimulant for seeds.

spread across the width

Peat oxidate

Economical plant nutrition, which is much cheaper than imported counterparts. Helps plants accumulate nutrients, improves soil structure, and prevents toxins from entering the plant.

It contains amino acids, monosaccharides, proteins, humic acids, minerals and sulfic acids. When using, be sure to dilute with water.

sulfic acids

Peat extract

A lowland type is used for manufacturing; an extract is obtained using electrohydraulic processing. Fertilizer is very convenient to use. Contains many beneficial substances. Recommended for areas where there is no need to fertilize the soil.

electrohydraulic processing

Alternative to peat fertilizers

If it is not possible to acquire a mineral, it is replaced with organics with a similar composition of nutrients. These include:

  • manure;
  • humus;
  • humus;
  • bird droppings;
  • silt;
  • feces;
  • sawdust, bark;
  • siderates;
  • compost pits.

Choosing an alternative for the vegetable grower.

alternatives behind a vegetable grower


The best substitute for peat. Its composition is rich in minerals that plants need to grow and develop. All of them are in an easily digestible form.

The only negative for the site is not to use fresh manure.

necessary for plants


Rich in nutrients that increase the overall fertility of the soil. It is introduced before digging or directly into the wells.

soil fertility


They are used as an alternative to peat in most cases, as it is rich in nutrients that enrich the soil.

enrich the soil

Bird droppings

It is recommended to use pigeon, chicken, goose and duck droppings are less suitable. Introduce undiluted in the fall. During the season, they are used as liquid dressings.

litter suitable


Sludge, rich in humus, potassium and nitrogen, is used on sites to increase soil fertility.

 potassium and nitrogen


They are not used in their pure form; special preparation of fertilizers with their use is required. They are made on the basis of a compost heap.

special training

Sawdust, bark

Cheap and affordable organic fertilizer that becomes an excellent substitute for a mineral. Introduce on the plots only rotted. Mix with other dressings and interlayer with the ground.

Compost is prepared from the bark, mixed with mineral dressings and moistened. The fertilizer will be ready within 6 months.

interbedded with earth


Since autumn, the site is sown with perennial or annual crops, and plowed in spring. Useful substances pass into the soil, enriching the soil.

annual crops

Compost pits

Harmless organic fertilizer that significantly increases soil fertility. The disadvantage of feeding is that it is prepared from 1 to 2 years. But do not forget that it is in this form that minerals are better absorbed by plants.

Peat as a fertilizer is indispensable on the site. But do not bring it in thoughtlessly, everything is good in moderation.

good in moderation

  1. Marina
    7.07.2018 06:48

    Peat is a good fertilizer, suitable for almost all crops, increases yields, but I buy BioGrow, he does an excellent job - not only gives fast growth to plants, but also protects them well from diseases, the yield is much increased.

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